By Norman K. Glendenning (auth.)

ISBN-10: 1468404911

ISBN-13: 9781468404913

ISBN-10: 1468404938

ISBN-13: 9781468404937

Neutron stars are the smallest denses stars identified, with densities a few 1014 occasions that of the Earth. They rotate with classes of fractions of a moment, and their magnetic fields force extreme interstellar dynamos, lighting fixtures up whole nebulae. this article discusses the physics of those severe items. It comprises the wanted history in classical common relativity in nuclear and particle physics.

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**Example text**

39). 190) or its inverse, where p and f are the pressure and energy density (including mass) in the local rest-frame of the fluid. In the next section we shall see how the equations for stellar structure involve these quantities and this relationship. 5 THE QpPENHEIMER-VOLKOFF EQUATIONS We are now prepared to derive the differential equations for the structure of a static, spherically symmetric, relativistic star. For the region outside a star, we found that the vanishing of the Einstein tensor was equivalent to the vanishing of the Ricci tensor or the scalar curvature.

70) 24 2. General Relativity Here f~v defined by f).. ax).. a2~o. = -- -;::--::-- /W - a~o. 71) is called the affine connection. The affine connection is symmetric in its lower indices. 70) is called a geodesic, the extremal path in the spacetime of an arbitrary gravitational field. 67), the straight line path of a free particle as observed from its freely falling frame. In the next section we will see that locally a geodesic path is a straight line. 68) can also be expressed in the arbitrary frame by writing d~o.

V=o. 181) 1. 182) where M is the constant of integration, and we introduced Newton's constant. Having studied the Newtonian approximation, one identifies M with the mass of the star. From the foregoing results, 911 = -e 2), = -e -2v = - ( 1 - 2GM)-1 r, (r > R). 8. Relativistic Stars 45 This completes the derivation of the Schwarzschild solution (1916) of Einstein's equations outside a spherical static star. It was the first exact solution found for Einstein's equations. 184) where R, in this context, denotes the radius of the star.

### Compact Stars: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics and General Relativity by Norman K. Glendenning (auth.)

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