By Jens Nielsen, John Villadsen, Gunnar Lidén
This can be the second one version of the textual content "Bioreaction Engineering rules" by means of Jens Nielsen and John Villadsen, initially released in 1994 via Plenum Press (now a part of Kluwer). Time runs speedy in Biotechnology, and whilst Kluwer Plenum stopped reprinting the 1st version and requested us to make a moment, revised version we fortunately accredited. A textual content on bioreactions written within the early 1990's won't mirror the big improvement of experimental in addition to theoretical features of mobile reactions up to now decade. within the preface to the 1st variation we admitted to be novices within the box. one in all us (JV) has had 10 extra years of task education in biotechnology, and the more youthful writer (IN) has now acquired foreign popularity for his paintings with the most well liked subject matters of "modem" biotechnology. moreover we're chuffed to have caused Gunnar Liden, professor of chemical response engineering at our sister collage in Lund, Sweden to affix us as co-author of the second one variation. His contribution, specially at the chemical engineering elements of "real" bioreactors has been of the best worth. bankruptcy eight of the current variation is basically unchanged from the 1st version. we want to thank professor Martin Hjortso from LSU for his titanic aid with this bankruptcy.
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The reaction from succinyl-CoA to succinate does in reality involve GTP, an analogue of ATP, but again to simplify the diagram the two species are lumped together. The enzymes are: (1) pyruvate dehydrogenase; (2) citrate synthase; (3) aconitase; (4) isocitrate dehydrogenase; (5) 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase; (6) succinate thiokinase; (7) succinate dehydrogenase; (8) fumarase; (9) malate dehydrogenase; (10) pyruvate carboxylase; (11) isocitrate lyase; (12) malate synthase. 3 Fermentative Pathways When the oxidative phosphorylation is inactive (due to the absence of oxygen or lack of some of the necessary proteins), pyruvate is not oxidized in the TCA cycle since that would lead to an accumulation of NADH inside the cells.
In this situation NADH is oxidized with simultaneous reduction of pyruvate to acetate, lactic acid, or ethanol. These processes are collectively called fermentative metabolism. Fermentative metabolism is not the same in all microorganisms, but there are many similarities. Bacteria can regenerate all NAD+ by reduction of pyruvate to lactic acid (reaction (1) in Fig. 6A and B). They can also regenerate all NAD+ by formation of ethanol in the so-called mixed acid fermentation pathway for which the entry point is the compound Acetyl-CoA.
1) we also implicitly assumed that the two partitioning coefficients were identical. We shall further take the three diffusivities to be constant and equal to D. Finally we shall assume that both the forward and backward reactions are much faster than the diffusion process. Effectively, this means that the chemical reaction is at equilibrium everywhere: crn +e~ crn e . __ cme with equilibrium constant K . (5) Adding Eqs. (2) and (3) and integrating one obtains: D(de + dcme) dz dz = k, (6) 22 Chapter 2 At the two surfaces de dz = dcme = 0 dz (7) since neither carrier nor carrier-substrate complex can leave the membrane.
Bioreaction Engineering Principles: Second Edition by Jens Nielsen, John Villadsen, Gunnar Lidén