By Amélie Garénaux; et al
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Extra info for Better understanding the Campylobacter conundrum
However, the sequence quality of pVir was very high, and suitable RBSs preceded all these small proteins. The biological significance of the coding capacity of pVir being biased toward low-molecular-weight proteins is unknown. There are seven clustered genes on pVir that encode homologs of type IV secretion proteins. The type IV secretion system encoded by pVir shows its greatest similarity to type IV secretion proteins found in H. pylori. Various mutational analysis were done and show the importance of, at least 16 genes in the invasion process.
The genomic structure of C. jejuni 81-176 is syntenic with NCTC 11168, except some duplications, deletions or insertion of genomic islands of various sizes. As said previously, the two referent strains contains several hypervariable plasticity regions that occur in gene clusters encoding LOS and capsule biosynthesis, as well as glycosylation loci. As expected, such diversity was also detected in 81176 but in these hypervariable regions, analysis revealed the absence of 51 genes in C. jejuni 81-176 compared to NCTC 11168 .
Survival in Environmental Waters and Soils The physiological properties of C. jejuni and C. coli ensure that under natural conditions bacterial growth only occurs within a warm-blooded host. Faecal shedding ensures and enables transmission to the next host and molecular epidemiological methods  indicate that the zoonotic strains circulate through the environment between the domestic livestock and wild animal/bird populations. Thus survival of campylobacters in the environment is a critical point in the ecology of this infection .
Better understanding the Campylobacter conundrum by Amélie Garénaux; et al