Becoming Charlemagne: Europe, Baghdad, and the Empires of - download pdf or read online

By Jeff Sypeck

On Christmas morning within the yr 800, Pope Leo III put the crown of imperial Rome at the forehead of a Germanic king named Karl—a gesture that enabled the fellow later hailed as Charlemagne to say his empire and ceaselessly form the future of Europe. Becoming Charlemagne tells the tale of the foreign strength fight that resulted in this world-changing occasion, illuminating an period that has lengthy been overshadowed by means of myth.

For 1,200 years, the deeds of Charlemagne encouraged kings and crusaders, the conquests of Napoléon and Hitler, and the positive architects of the eu Union. during this attractive narrative, Jeff Sypeck crafts a vibrant portrait of the ruler who grew to become a legend, whereas evoking a long-ago global of kings, caliphs, retailers, and priests. Transporting readers a ways past Europe to the glittering palaces of Constantinople and the streets of medieval Baghdad, Becoming Charlemagne brings alive an age of empire construction that maintains to resonate to this day.

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48 Their function is essentially cognitive; they 15 Introduction bring a new and vital awareness to certain characters, thus effecting a crucial link between the past dimension of the narrated story, or diegesis, and the present moment in the story, thus renewing the narrative's momentum. 49 More recently, a number of studies have discussed re¯exive features in a considerable variety of works. Although a few have been broadly based,50 most are limited in scope, dealing with one or at most a handful of texts that display re¯exive properties at one or more levels of textual organization.

42 Most critical work on re¯exivity has nonetheless dealt, as does DaÈllenbach, with modern texts, which might lead one to suppose that study of re¯exive elements in medieval literature would offer an unpromising line of inquiry. In fact, when re¯exivity ®rst came under intense critical and theoretical scrutiny two decades ago, medieval texts were initially on the margins of the debate. 45 But it is by no means an anomaly in this period. Re¯exive ®rst-person accounts are numerous in twelfth-century works.

Each chapter addresses different aspects of the question, beginning with two extensive investigations of the schema's consistent development throughout a corpus of works by a single author. Chapter One shows how, in the twelve Lais of Marie de France, the specular encounter assumes the principal accessory role in bringing about a highly characteristic closing con®guration in each lai. The comparative dimension created by Marie's Guigemar and our earlier discussion of the life of Saint Eustace initially provides an opportunity to consider the characteristics of the specular encounter in related hagiographic and courtly settings of the cynegetic subtype; subsequently the chapter deals with each lai in Marie's collection in turn as a ``®ction of reciprocity,'' in which the specular encounter is instrumental in the establishment of a reciprocal relationship toward which the story develops and which it valorizes in a special way at the story's close.

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Becoming Charlemagne: Europe, Baghdad, and the Empires of A.D. 800 by Jeff Sypeck

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