Download e-book for iPad: Authors of the Medieval and Renaissance Eras: 1100 to 1660 by Adam Augustyn

By Adam Augustyn

ISBN-10: 1622750128

ISBN-13: 9781622750122

As Europe's non secular, social, financial, and cultural identification started to take extra convinced form within the medieval and Renaissance eras, so too did its literary id. through taking pictures in ink the spirit of those transformative sessions, such literary giants as Geoffrey Chaucer, Miguel de Cervantes, William Shakespeare, and John Milton laid the rules for literature, drama, and poetry this present day. Readers may be brought to those and different impressive figures from worldwide whose works have had an both enduring effect at the international literary canon.

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DESPITE SERIOUS PREOCCUPATIONS IN THE EAST, 20 Transformation of Roman Mediterranean Christianity and self-confident expansionism on the part of a Latin west, which for centuries had lain prostrate in the face of external attacks. The Frankish King Charlemagne, Charles the Great, inherited from his father Pippin III the recently subjugated Mediterranean lands of Aquitaine and Provence and a tradition of intervening in Italian affairs in support of the pope. After their capture of Ravenna in 751 the Lombards had attempted to take over the former Byzantine territories of the exarchate and the duchy of Rome, much to the alarm of the popes, who never ceased to regard the Lombards as barbarian interlopers.

S emperor on Christmas Day 800, hoping thereby to strengthen his hold over his protector. The Byzantines were outraged, and conceded only limited recognition of the title in 812 after protracted negotiations. For the papacy the restoration of a western empire represented a decisive turning of its back on Byzantium and an opportunity to stress its political as well as ecclesiastical authority in the west. In the long term the creation of a western empire gave a boost to notions of a distinct European identity and helped create a north-south axis which was to dominate the west throughout the Middle Ages.

Many cities disappeared completely during the Avar and Slav invasions, and among those surviving, settlement became confined to the fortified acropolis, as ·in Athens and Corinth. The evidence of finds of copper coinage points to a drastic decline in local commercial activity. What is striking is not simply the physical decline but the complete loss of urban consciousness and the change of role. Cities lost their earlier importance as economic and residential centres, and assumed an almost exclusively military CIRCUS RACING.

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Authors of the Medieval and Renaissance Eras: 1100 to 1660 (The Britannica Guide to Authors) by Adam Augustyn

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