Rudolf Kingslake's Applied optics and optical engineering,Vol.IV PDF

By Rudolf Kingslake

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22] and [23]). These filaments are each approximately 100 gm in diameter. The local breakdown, and resultant current, usually lasts from 1 to 100 ns. These filamentary discharges occur over the entire surface of the insulator, and when a time-varying voltage is applied to the electrodes, breakdown can be induced several times per cycle depending on the voltage amplitude and the waveform. Thus, when the discharge is viewed between the electrode-insulator-electrode space, it is the integrated output of an enormous number of individual filamentary discharges.

The following is a summary of some of the most important aspects. It is necessary to calculate the heat loading on the optical components, particularly those first in the beam, to determine whether cooling is required and which materials should be used. For the ASTRID source no cooling is required, but on other sources where a large x-ray flux must be absorbed it is essential, particularly if a VUV beamline is being installed on a high energy storage ring. Also, where high-resolution is a priority, implying high precision and stability in the optical components, temperature uniformity and control will be essential, and in the engineering design the use of finite analysis techniques has proved its worth.

1 Concave diffraction grating, imaging a monochromatic source S to an image I. DESIGN PROCEDURE 29 the NBS storage ring [3], resulting in a very simple toroidal grating monochromator (TGM). They are highly efficient, but are limited in general to mediumresolution requirements, because the aberrations, primarily astigmatic coma resulting from "coupling" between the two radii of curvature, dominate their performance particularly if large apertures are required. There are wellestablished optimization procedures for the design of such instruments [4], in which the various aberrations are minimized over the chosen wavelength range.

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Applied optics and optical engineering,Vol.IV by Rudolf Kingslake

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