By Martín Abadi, Luca Cardelli
Procedural languages are as a rule good understood and their formal foundations solid within the varieties of quite a few lambda-calculi. For object-oriented languages but the scenario isn't as simple. during this booklet the authors suggest and advance a distinct procedure through constructing item calculi during which gadgets are taken care of as primitives. utilizing item calculi, the authors may be able to clarify either the semantics of items and their typing ideas and display find out how to improve the entire most crucial recommendations of object-oriented programming languages: self, dynamic dispatch, periods, inheritance, secure and personal equipment, prototyping, subtyping, covariance and contravariance, and approach specialization. Many researchers and graduate scholars will locate this an incredible improvement of the underpinnings of object-oriented programming.
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Extra info for A theory of Objects
In short, we obtain that any instance of maxClass has type Max, and any instance of minMaxClass has type MinMax. Although minMaxClass is a subclass of maxClass, MinMax cannot be a subtype of Max. min(self) = other then return self else return other end; end; end; For any instance mm' of minMaxClass' we have mm' : MinMax. max(m) would be allowed for any m of type Max. Since m may not have a min attribute, the overridden max method of mm' may break. Therefore: MinMax <: Max does not hold Thus subclasses with contravariant occurrences of Self do not always induce subtypes.
OBJECT -ORIENTED FEATURES It seems natural to take such a protocol as the type of instances of cell. contents := n end; end; subclass reCell of cell is var backup: Integer := 0; override set(n: Integer) is self. backup end; end; We introduce two object types Cell and ReCell that correspond to these classes. We write them as independent types, but we could introduce syntax to avoid repeating common components. ObjectType Cell is var contents: Integer; method getO: Integer; method set(n: Integer); end; ObjectType ReCell is var contents: Integer; var backup: Integer; method getO: Integer; method set(n: Integer); method restoreO; end; These types list attributes and their types, but not their implementations.
Contents := 0 end; end; Here the set method updates the restore method; there is no need for a separate backup field. In the rest of this chapter we discuss the various ways in which clones may be derived from prototypes, and how clones may mutate. 3 Inheritance by Embedding and by Delegation Simple object-based languages such as Emerald use procedures for generating objects that share common behavior, but these languages have no inheritance mechanism. Prototype-based languages also have a generation mechanism, plus a way of updating individual objects.
A theory of Objects by Martín Abadi, Luca Cardelli